Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
Plants are subject to attack and infection by a remarkable variety of symbiotic species and have evolved a diverse array of mechanisms designed to frustrate the potential colonists. These can be divided into preformed or passive defense mechanisms and inducible or active systems. Passive plant defense comprises physical and chemical barriers that prevent entry of pathogens, such as bacteria, or render tissues unpalatable or toxic to the invader. The external surfaces of plants, in addition to being covered by an epidermis and a waxy cuticle, often carry spiky hairs known as trichomes, which either prevent feeding by insects or may even puncture and kill insect larvae. Other trichomes are sticky and glandular and effectively trap and immobilize insects. If the physical barriers of the plant are breached, then preformed chemicals may inhibit or kill the intruder, and plant tissues contain a diverse array of toxic or potentially toxic substances, such as resins, tannins, glycosides, and alkaloids, many of which are highly effective deterrents to insects that feed on plants. The success of the Colorado beetle in infesting potatoes, for example, seems to be correlated with its high tolerance to alkaloids that normally repel potential pests. Other possible chemical defenses, while not directly toxic to the parasite, may inhibit some essential step in the establishment of a parasitic relationship. For example, glycoproteins in plant cell walls may inactivate enzymes that degrade cell walls. These enzymes are often produced by bacteria and fungi.
Active plant defense mechanisms are comparable to the immune system of vertebrate animals, although the cellular and molecular bases are fundamentally different. Both, however, are triggered in reaction to intrusion, implying that the host has some means of recognizing the presence of a foreign organism. The most dramatic example of an inducible plant defense reaction is the hypersensitive response. In the hypersensitive response, cells undergo rapid necrosis ― that is, they become diseased
and die ― after being penetrated by a parasite ; the parasite itself subsequently ceases to grow and is therefore restricted to one or a few cells around the entry site. Several theories have been put forward to explain the bases of hypersensitive resistance.
Question 1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. How the immune system of animals and the defense mechanisms of plants differ
B. How plant defense mechanisms function
C. Theories on active plant defense mechanisms
D. The success of parasites in resisting plant defense mechanisms
Question 2. The phrase "subject to" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
A. attractive to
B. strengthened by
C. classified by
D. susceptible to
Question 3. The word "puncture" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
A. surround B. pinch
Question 4. The word "which" in line 13 refers to
A. barriers B. tissues
Question 5. Which of the following substances does the author mention as NOT necessarily being toxic to the Colorado beetle?
A. Alkaloids B. Glycosides
Question 6. Why does the author mention "glycoproteins" in line 17?
A. To illustrate how chemicals function in plant defense
B. To emphasize the importance of physical barriers in plant defense
C. To compare plant defense mechanisms to the immune system of animals
D. To introduce the discussion of active defense mechanisms in plants
Question 7. Where in the passage dose the author describe an active plant-defense reaction?
A. Lines 1-3 B. Lines 13-15
C. Lines 19-23 D. Lines 4-6
Question 8. The passage most probable continues with a discussion of theories on
A. the basis of passage plant defense
B. the principles of the hypersensitive response.
C. how chemicals inhibit a parasitic relationship.
D. how plants produce toxic chemical.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on the top of the first page to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
A. music B. refusal
C. studying D. human
A. vehicle B. hospital
C. honest D. heir
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on the top of the first page to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
A. necessarily B. originally
C. elaborately D. mysteriously
A. favorable B. democracy
C. relationship D. evaluate
Write the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the most suitable response to complete each of the following exchanges.
Question 13. John is talking to a cashier at the checkout counter of the supermarket.
Cashier: “All right. Keep your receipt. If something comes up, you can show it to us and you can get a refund.”
A. Thanks. I’ll put it in a safe place
B. Thank you. I’ll keep it for you.
C. OK, I won’t use it,
D. You’re welcome. See you.
Question 14. Joe and Matt met at a friend’s farewell party.
Joe: “ I thought you were too tired”
Matt: “ ______ I’ve decided to go. I feel I owe it to him.”
A. More of the same
B. All the more
C. One and the same
D. All the same
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions.
Question 15. No one but the experts was able to realize that the painting was an imitation. It greatly resembled the original.
A. It was obvious that only a person with great talent could fake a painting so successfully.
B. It was hard for ordinary people to judge between the fake painting and the real one, but not the experts.
C. The painting looked so much like the authentic that only the experts could tell it wasn’t genuine.
D. It was almost impossible for amateurs to realize that the painting was not authentic, though the experts could judge it quite easily.
Question 16. The police issued a warning on the radio. A dangerous man had escaped from hospital.
A. The police issued a warning on the radio, namely, a dangerous man had escaped from hospital.
B. A dangerous man had escaped from hospital where the police issued a warning on the radio.
C. The police issued a warning on the radio about a dangerous man had escaped from hospital.
D. A dangerous an had escaped from hospital, so the police issued a warning on the radio.
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the sentence that the word(s) that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.
Question 17. S. Mayo Hospital in New Orleans was so named in recognition of Dr. Mayo’s outstanding humanitarianism.
A. remarkable B. charitable
Question 18. It was inevitable that the smaller company should merge with the larger.
A. urgent B. unavoidable
C. necessary D. important
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions.
Question 19. That man was an easy recognized figure with his long, white beard and a wide – brimmed hat.
A. easy B. wide – brimmed
Question 20. In China, Japan and other Oriental countries, where tea is the national drink, people almost never use sugar for their tea.
A. where B. Oriental
Question 21. Drying food by means of solar energy is an ancient process applying wherever climatic conditions make it possible.
A. make it possible B. Drying
Write the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
Question 22: The noise next door did not stop until after midnight.
A. It was midnight that the noise next door stopped.
B. The noise next door stopped at midnight.
C. Not until midnight did the noise next door stop.
D. It was not until after midnight that the noise next door stopped.
Question 23: Even though some events were cancelled, thousands of people attended the festival.
A. As some events were cancelled, thousands of people attended the festival.
B. No matter how many people attended the festival, some events were cancelled.
C. In spite some cancelled events, thousands of people attended the festival.
D. Despite the cancellation of some events, thousands of people attended the festival.
Question 24. The crowd became increasingly angry at the long delay.
A. The more increasingly the crowd became, the longer the delay was.
B. The crowd became very angry because the delay was so long.
C. The more the crowd became angry at the delay, the longer they feel.
D. The longer the delay was, the angrier the crowd became.
Read the following passage and write the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
The ___(25)____ for many young people today is to communicate with others over the Internet and have a life online. They way they do this is through social networking web sites such as Facebook and Twitter. However, the people who ___(26)____ their lives online are also putting themselves at risk, and they may not even understand how they are doing so.
The key to limiting risk is to keep certain pieces of information private. If you do any banking online, for example, it is important to note that dates of birth are often used as a(n) ____(27)_____ feature by banks. They will need to know your identification number and possibly your address as well, but to ____(28) ____. They will need to know your identification your identity, they might ask you for your date of birth. If a criminal were to gain access to your account number at a bank, and then obtain your address from public records, the one thing that he would not have would be your birth date.
These days, however, a lot of people list their dates of birth openly on Facebook ____(29)____ their friends can wish them well on their birthdays. Unfortunately, doing so could end up being a recipe for disaster.
A. change B. development
C. behavior D. trend
A. create B. invest
C. produce D. make
A. recognition B. identification
C. recognizing D. identifying
A. verify B. prove
C. clarify D. determine
A. because B. so that
C. thus D. so
Write the letter A, B, C or D on the top of the first page to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 30. We are ready to be answerable to the manager for anything that goes wrong.
A. dutiful B. responsible
C. accountable D. irresponsible
Question 31. The caffeine in coffee invigorates a coffee drinker.
A. galvanizes B. extrudes
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
In the 1970s, many people became concerned about energy. People has to face up to the fact that they used too much energy, and energy sources were not going to last forever. One architect, Michael Reynolds, decided to do something. He set out to design homes that were cheaper to build and more energy-efficient. In addition, he wanted to do something about all the garbage. Finally, he came up with the idea of “earthships.”
Although it sounds like a boat, an earthship is a house. However, unlike regular houses, earthships are constructed from garbage and are built using only ten percent of the energy needed to build a typical house. Moreover, after they are built, earthships use only ten percent of the energy required to heat, light, and cool a regular home. Although earthships sound unique, they can actually be built to look just like any other house.
One of the big benefits of earthships is that they are made from recycled materials. The main construction material of an earthship is used tyres that are filled with dirt. The dirt-filled tyres are then laid flat and stacked like bricks. Because the tyres are round, there is lots of extra space between the columns of tyres. These spaces are filled with used cardboard. The tyres and cardboard form the outside walls of an earthship. The inside walls between rooms in the earthship do not need to be as strong as the outside walls; therefore, the inside walls are made with old cans, bottles, and cement that are eventually covered and painted to look just like walls in a typical home.
Another benefit of an earthship is that it saves energy and natural resources. For example, an earthship uses less water. Rain water, which is collected on the roof, is used for drinking and bathing. Furthermore, earthships need much less energy for heating and cooling because they are built into the ground, which keeps the temperature inside the house from getting too hot or too cold. In the long run, this helps earthship owners lower their utility bills. As well, one wall of an earthship usually faces south. Therefore, solar heat helps to warm the house, and solar panels built on the roof generate electricity to run appliances in the house.
All of these features make earthships very environmentally friendly. That’s one of the reasons they have become popular throughout the world. Earthships have been built in Bolivia, Australia, Mexico, Japan., Canada, England, Scotland, and all over the YS. Maybe in the near future, an earthship will be landing near you!
Question 32: What is the main idea of this reading?
A. Earthships are popular in many different countries.
B. Earthships look like typical houses.
C. Environmentalists are concerned about energy.
D. Earthships are environmentally friendly homes.
Question 33. What is the main building material of earthships?
A. used cardboard
C. used tires
D. old cans and bottles
Question 34. In an earthship, old boxes would be used to _______.
A. build inside walls
B. fill outside walls
C. create fertilizer
D. recycle water
Question 35. Why do earthships need less energy to heat and cool them?
A. They recycle water.
B. They are built into the ground.
C. They are typically very small.
D. They are more energy efficient.
Question 36. What does the phrase “ In the long run” in the fourth paragraph mean?
A. As a matter of fact
B. Concerning a longer period in the future
C. In a long race
D. At the last moment
Question 37. What does “environmentally friendly” mean?
A. found throughout the environment
B. good for the environment
C. bad for the environment
D. made from natural products
Question 38. How are earthships different from regular houses?
A. Earthship cost more money to build.
B. Earthships are constructed from garbage and less energy is used to build , heat, light, and cool there.
C. Earthships are constructed from garbage.
D. Earthships are built using only percent of the energy needed to build a typical house.
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
Question 39: Hotel rooms must be _______ by 10 am, but luggage may be left with the poster.
A. left B. abandoned
Question 40. If you had taken my advice , you ______ in such difficulties now.
A. won’t be
B. wouldn’t be
C. hadn’t been
D. wouldn’t have been
Question 41. People living abroad are not _______ to enter for this position
A. enabled B. eligible
C. capable D. permissible
Question 42. _________, the balcony chairs will be ruined in this weather.
A. Having left uncovered
B. Leaving uncovered
C. Been left uncovered
D. Left uncovered
Question 43. When his business failed, he started again from _________.
A. introduction B. blank
Question 44. Greg was all ready to do the bungee jump, but at the last moment he_________.
A. chickened out B. chickened up
C. chickened for D. fogged up
Question 45. Old Mr. Brown’s condition looks very serious and it is doubtful if he will _________?
A. pull through B. pull out
Question 46. The supervisor’s job is to _______ the work of his particular department.
A. overrun B. overdo
Question 47. Ask her to come and see me as soon as she _______ her work.
A. finish B. finishing
C. has finished D. finished
Question 48. Not once ________ his promises
A. has he kept B. he keeps
C. is he keeping D. he has kept
Question 49. His sister was full of ______ for the way in which he had learned to drive a car so quick.
A. pride B. surprise
C. jealousy D. admiration
Question 50. You are old enough to take ______ for what you have done.
A. responsibly B. responsible
C. responsibility D. irresponsible
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